Galanthamine Hydrobromide Nootropics Powder Alzheimer's disease
Product Name: Galantamine Hydrobromide Lycoremine
Botanical Name: Lycoris Radiata (L'Herit)
Specification: Galanthamine: 98%-99%
Test method: HPLC
CAS No. : 1953-04-4
Molecular Formula C17H22BrNO3
Molecular Weight: 368.27
Appearance: White crystalline powder
What is Galanthamine Hydrobromide ?
Galantamine is an alkaloid originally found in species of
Galanthus, Narcissus, Leucojum, and Lycoris; it exhibits
neuroprotective and cognition enhancing activities. Galantamine
inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acts as an allosteric
agonist on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and
muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs); it is somewhat
selective for α7 nAChRs. Galantamine is clinically used to improve
cognitive deficits in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease.
Galantamine is neuroprotective and promotes neurogenesis in an
IGF-2-dependent manner. Galantamine may also inhibit P2X7
receptors, increasing Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting apoptosis.
Mechanism of action of galantamine hydrobromide
So how exactly does galantamine hydrobromide work? Although the act
of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s (AD) isn’t fully understood,
it’s been reported that acetylcholine-creating nerves degenerate
within the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s. The degree of this
cholinergic loss continues to be correlated with amount of
cognitive impairment and density of amyloid plaques (a
neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s).
Galantamine hydrobromide binds electrostatically towards the enzyme
active site of cholinesterase. Binding is reversible, as a result
it functions as a competitive reversible inhibitor of
cholinesterase and extends the hydrolysis of endogenous
acetylcholine, therefore growing its accumulation and extending and
potentiating its effects, that are expressed in intensified and
prolonged mediation at the amount of cholinergic postsynaptic
membrane. Galantamine hydrobromide has been discovered to exert
direct impact on some CNS structures with cholinergic nerves.
Additionally, it functions in CNS by reflex path, potentiating
afferent impulses from some peripheral reflexogenic areas.
COA of the Galanthamine Hydrobromide
|Items of analysis||Specification||Results|
|Appearence||White crystalline powder||White crystalline powder|
|Test for Bromide||A yellow precipitate is formed indicating the presence of
|Loss on Drying (%w/w,determined on 1.0g)||Not more than 0.5%||0.25%|
|Residue on Ignition (%w/w,determined on 1.0g)||Not more than 0.1%||0.06%|
|Solubility||Soluble in 0.1N sodium hydroxide, sparingly soluble in water, very
|Heavy metals||Not more than 20 PPM||Less than 20 PPM|
|Limit Of Galanthamine Enantiomer [(+)-Galanthamine] (By HPLC,%w/w)||Not more than 0.01%||Not detected|
|Norgalanthamine [USP:N-Desmethylgalantamine]||Not more than 0.20%||Not detected|
|Lycoramine[USP:Dihydrogalantamine]||Not more than 0.35%||0.13%|
|Glanthamine N-oxide||Not more than 0.20%||Below Limit of Quantification|
|Epigalanthamine||Not more than 0.40%||Below Limit of Quantification|
|O-Desmethylgalanthamine||Not more than 0.20%||Not detected|
|Narwedine||Not more than 0.15%||0.02%|
|Any other||Not more than 0.10%||Not detected|
|Total||Not more than 1.0%||0.17%|
|Toluene||Not more than 890 ppm||Below Limit of Quantification|
|Ethanol||Not more than 5000 ppm||377ppm|
|Tetrahydrofuran||Not more than 500 ppm||Not detected|
|Bromide Content||Between 20.6 %and 22.8%||21.70%|
|Particle Size(By Malvern Particle size analyzer, µm)||D(v,0.1)||29 µm|
|Conculsion||The results can conform to USP30 Standard|
1. Galanthamine Hydrobromide is mainly used in myasthenia gravis,
poliovirus quiescent stage and sequela, also in polyneuritis,
funiculitis and sensorimotor barrier caused by nervous system
disease or traumatism.
2. Galanthamine Hydrobromide is also used in Alzheimer's disease,
has the principal function for dement and dysmnesia caused by
organic brain damage.
The side effects of galantamine hydrochloride may be very
uncomfortable, and mainly contain vomiting(throwing up) and
nausea(sickness). Modifying the patient’s diet might help mitigate
these effects. The seriousness of the adverse effects and also the
small amount of improvement has brought some doctors to summarize
that anticholinesterase treatments are not warranted. Current types
of pathology concentrate on the beta amyloid plaques that form
within the brain.
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